Macrovascular disease is related with large blood vessels like arteries, coronary and the sizable arteries in the brain and in the limbs. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are causes of development of microvascular disease.
Mostly type 2 diabetes increases the risk of microvascular disease of kidneys, eyes and nerves. Microvascular disease can result into kidney failure, blindness, impotence (in men) and foot ulcers. Usually microvascular complications occur due to high level of sugar over time that is it happens after many years of diabetes.
Macrovascular complications of diabetes directly affect on the blood vessels. Because of high diabetes linings of the blood vessels get damaged and become narrow, as a result of this the blood supply decreases in the affected area. When blood vessels of the brain and heart get affected it results in heart attack or stroke. Problems of blood circulation, decreased sensation, and leg cramps happen due to affected blood vessels in the legs.
For diabetes treatment insulin is used only when you cannot control blood sugar level by oral medication treatment. Generally combination treatment of oral medication and insulin is used. Depending upon patient’s sugar level insulin dose can be adjusted. In the beginning doctors recommend small insulin dose. Depending upon the body’s response to insulin one can easily determine insulin dose and time.
Insulin is classified according to how quickly it begins to work and how long it remains active. Examples of rapid acting insulin are insulin glulisine, insulin aspart, and insulin lispro. Insulin regular is short acting insulin. NPH is intermediate-acting insulin. Insulin glargine and insulin detemir are long acting insulin.
Insulin is never in a pill form. It is injected into the fatty layer under the skin. Insulin injection angle is an important thing that everybody should remember. Insulin injections that are too shallow are more painful and cannot be absorbed well. Insulin pen injections are more convenient to use. It is useful in accurately injecting very small doses of insulin.
Injection site is also considered while injecting insulin. To minimize tissue irritation experts recommend rotating injection sites. The rate of absorption of insulin is different in different areas of the body. Insulin is absorbed fastest in the abdominal area, slowest in the leg and buttocks and at an intermediate rate in the arm. The rate of absorption of insulin also depends upon the amount of fat present; more fat reduces the rate of absorption.
The amount of insulin dose changes according to person’s diet, weight, activity levels and health condition. Eating habits can affect insulin result; hence you have to monitor blood glucose levels when on insulin treatment. Diet plays an important role in this situation because hypo or hyperglycemia can occur if you do not take balanced diet. In insulin treatment for microvascular patient mild infections can occur such as cold, sore throat or urinary tract infection. While traveling you have to take extra care about your insulin treatment plan. Patients should speak with their healthcare providers and then plan insulin doses and timings.